Efficient vertical charge transport in polycrystalline halide perovskites revealed by four-dimensional tracking of charge carriers
Changsoon Cho, Sascha Feldmann, Kyung Mun Yeom, Yeoun-Woo Jang, Simon Kahmann, Jun-Yu Huang, Terry Chien‐Jen Yang, Mohammed Nabaz Taher Khayyat, Yuh-Renn Wu, Mansoo Choi, Jun Hong Noh, Samuel D. Stranks, and Neil C. Greenham
Nature Materials | Volume 21 | December 2022 | 1388–1395
Fast diffusion of charge carriers is crucial for efficient charge collection in perovskite solar cells. While lateral transient photoluminescence microscopies have been popularly used to characterize charge diffusion in perovskites, there exists a discrepancy between low diffusion coefficients measured and near-unity charge collection efficiencies achieved in practical solar cells. Here, we reveal hidden microscopic dynamics in halide perovskites through four-dimensional (directions x, y and z and time t) tracking of charge carriers by characterizing out-of-plane diffusion of charge carriers. By combining this approach with confocal microscopy, we discover a strong local heterogeneity of vertical charge diffusivities in a three-dimensional perovskite film, arising from the difference between intragrain and intergrain diffusion. We visualize that most charge carriers are efficiently transported through the direct intragrain pathways or via indirect detours through nearby areas with fast diffusion. The observed anisotropy and heterogeneity of charge carrier diffusion in perovskites rationalize their high performance as shown in real devices. Our work also foresees that further control of polycrystal growth will enable solar cells with micrometres-thick perovskites to achieve both long optical path length and efficient charge collection simultaneously.